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Previously, aerial reconnaissance was ordered by army intelligence officers of the Army Group HQ part of the structure to which the Abwehr was assigned. He soon set up a network of agents and wireless stations gathering information in Libya and in the surrounding French territories. During late January for instance, the OKW authorized the creation of a special unit, Sonderkommando Dora , which was placed under the command of Abwehr officer, Oberstleutnant Walter Eichler formerly a Panzer officer as well.

An Iranian national recruited in Hamburg by the Abwehr before the war was converted into a double agent by British and Russian intelligence officers working together in one of the few joint intelligence efforts of the war , who code-named him "Kiss". From late until the end of the war, Kiss, who was based out of the intelligence center in Baghdad, provided false information on Soviet and British troop movements in Iraq and Iran to the Abwehr ; as directed by his Allied controllers. They infiltrated the region using Manfred Oberdorffer, a physician, and Fred Hermann Brandt , an entomologist under the guise of a medical mission to conduct research on leprosy.

Just how committed to German victory were typical members of the Abwehr is difficult to assess, but if its leadership tells a story, it is not one of conviction. Canaris did make the United States a primary target even before its entry into the conflict. By , German agents were operating from within all of America's top armaments manufacturers.

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The Abwehr also suffered a very public debacle in Operation Pastorius , which resulted in the executions of six Abwehr agents sent to the United States to sabotage the American aluminum industry. The Abwehr attempted use coercion as a means to infiltrate the United States when they 'recruited' a naturalized American citizen visiting Germany, William G. Sebold, by Gestapo threats and blackmail, code-naming him TRAMP, and assigning him the task of "serving as radio and microfilm channel for Major Nikolaus Ritter, head of the Abwehr Hamburg post's air intelligence section".

The Abwehr was impaired by agents who aided the Allies in whatever covert means were necessary. Canaris personally gave false information that discouraged Hitler from invading Switzerland Operation Tannenbaum. He also persuaded Francisco Franco not to allow German forces to pass through Spain to invade Gibraltar Operation Felix , but it may have been just as much the imposition of the SD. The SD was allegedly spreading rumors about the partition of Spain. SD operatives also established a station at the central post office in Madrid to police mail going through Spain, and even attempted to assassinate one of Franco's pro-Allied generals, which strengthened Franco's intransigence to Hitler and the Nazi regime.

Still, images of the Abwehr as a veritable organ of resistance inside the heart of the Third Reich are not an accurate reflection across the spectrum of its entire operations or its personnel. There were some committed Nazis in its ranks. Before the invasion of Poland for instance, the Abwehr and SiPo jointly drew up a list of over sixty-thousand names, people who were to be the targets of Operation Tannenberg , an effort designed to systematically identify and liquidate the Polish elite.

During January , partisan fighters at the port city of Eupatoria in the Crimea assisted a Red Army landing there and revolted against the German occupying forces. Reinforcements were sent in under General Erich von Manstein and the port city was retaken. Reprisals against the partisans were carried out under the direction of Major Riesen, an Abwehr officer on the Eleventh Army's staff, who oversaw the execution of civilians, the bulks of whom were Jews.

Out in the field, the army group commander of the G-2 was provided assistance for the army group Abwehr officer Frontaufklaerungskommando III , with additional help coming available from the secret field police. Abwehr officers in this capacity were tasked with overseeing personnel in counterintelligence, the safeguarding of classified information, and preventive security. According to the United States War Dept. General Staff,.

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According to Bauer, the Abwehr was more interested in perpetuating its own interests than it was in saving Jews. Several examples demonstrate that some Abwehr members were opposed to the Nazi regime.

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In January for example, American statesman John Foster Dulles revealed his knowledge of a coalescing resistance against the Nazis, an assemblage of intellectuals from military and government circles; his main contact was Abwehr officer Hans Bernd Gisevius , who was stationed in Zurich as the German Vice Consul. Roosevelt would have none of it, preferring instead a policy of unconditional surrender for the Nazi government.

General Oster of the Abwehr remained in regular contact with Dulles. Foreknowledge and penetration of the Abwehr was such that Dulles reported later in February that the Abwehr was going to be absorbed by the SD. The SS continually undermined the Abwehr by putting its officers under investigation, believing them to be involved in anti-Hitler plots.

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Heydrich ensured that the Abwehr and Canaris were closely monitored. Likewise, a group of White Russians under General Anton Turkul sought asylum in Germany and offered to provide radio intelligence for the Germans and worked with the Abwehr in getting the necessary communication links established. One of the primary radio links was code-named MAX, supposedly located near the Kremlin. Careful message trafficking and deception operations by the Soviets allowed them to misdirect the Germans and aided in the strategic surprise they enjoyed against Army Group Center in June On 10 September , the incident which eventually resulted in the dissolution of the Abwehr occurred.

The incident came to be known as the " Frau Solf Tea Party.

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Frau Johanna or Hanna Solf was the widow of Dr. Frau Solf had long been involved in the anti-Nazi intellectual movement in Berlin. Members of her group were known as members of the "Solf Circle. Reckse was an agent of the Gestapo Secret State Police , to which he reported on the meeting, providing several incriminating documents.

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The members of the Solf Circle were all rounded up on 12 January One of those executed was Otto Kiep , an official in the Foreign Office, who had friends in the Abwehr , among whom were Erich Vermehren and his wife, the former Countess Elizabeth von Plettenberg , who were stationed as agents in Istanbul. Both were summoned to Berlin by the Gestapo in connection with the Kiep case. Fearing for their lives, they contacted the British and defected. Hitler had long suspected that the Abwehr had been infiltrated by anti-Nazi defectors and Allied agents, and the defection of Vemehren after the Solf Circle arrests all but confirmed it.

It was also mistakenly believed in Berlin that the Vermehrens absconded with the secret codes of the Abwehr and turned them over to the British. That proved to be the last straw for Hitler. Despite the efforts of the Abwehr to shift the blame to the SS or even to the Foreign Ministry, Hitler had had enough of Canaris and he told Himmler so twice. He summoned the chief of the Abwehr for a final interview and accused him of allowing the Abwehr to "fall to bits". Canaris quietly agreed that it was "not surprising", as Germany was losing the war. Hitler fired Canaris on the spot, and on 18 February , Hitler signed a decree that abolished the Abwehr.

This action deprived the German Armed Forces Wehrmacht and the anti-Nazi conspirators of an intelligence service of its own and strengthened Himmler's control over the military. Canaris was cashiered and given the empty title of Chief of the Office of Commercial and Economic Warfare. He was arrested on 23 July , in the aftermath of the " July 20 Plot " against Hitler and executed shortly before the end of the war, along with Oster, his deputy.

During the war, the Abwehr assembled a secret dossier detailing many of the crimes committed in Eastern Europe by the Nazis, known as the Zossen documents. These files were gathered together with the intention of exposing the regime's crimes at a future date. Some of the papers were allegedly buried—but the individual responsible for this ended up implicated in the 20 July plot against Hitler and was executed. Later, the documents were discovered by the Gestapo and under the personal supervision of then SD Chief Ernst Kaltenbrunner , they were taken to the castle Schloss Mittersill in the Tyrol and burned.

Supposedly amid the Zossen documents was nothing less than the personal diary of Admiral Canaris, as well as the Vatican and Fritsch papers. Many historians agree that, generally speaking, the Abwehr had a poor reputation for the quality of its work and its unusually decentralized organization.

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American historian Robin Winks says that the Abwehr was, "an abysmal failure, failing to forecast Torch , or Husky , or Overlord. This harsh criticism of the Abwehr aside, there were some notable successes of the organization earlier in its existence. Former OSS station chief and later director of the Central Intelligence Agency , Allen Dulles , evaluated German intelligence officers from the Abwehr at the end of the war and concluded that only the upper echelons were active dissenters and part of the opposition movement. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

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Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security , vol. Review [Office of Naval Intelligence] 1, no. Full text online and retrievable from: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link Accessed December 20, Spionage und Widerstand. Augsburg: Weltbild, See: Barnett Hitler's Generals , p. For example, historian Gerhard Weinberg wrote that the common view among Germans was that the war with the Soviet Union would be quick and easy, and adds further evidence about the lack of any specialized weapon development for the coming conflict with the Red Army.

Only after the Germans faced the T did they modify and develop their tanks. See: Liddel-Hart The German Generals Talk , p.

Instead of reporting information back to the Nazis, Fackenheim, who had been dropped by parachute into Palestine, promptly turned himself over to the Allies. Frankfurt: Fischer Verlag, Efforts by dissident Germans to contact the Allies in Switzerland and elsewhere during are also documented in U. See: Waller See: Thomas, David Journal of Contemporary History. Historian David Kahn asserts that the Brits accomplished "the greatest deception in the history of warfare since the Trojans dragged into their jubilant city a huge wooden horse left by the departing Greeks.

General Staff , p. Andrew, Christopher Archer, Christon; Ferris, John R. World History of Warfare. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Barnett, Correlli, ed. New York: Grove Press, New York: Pegasus Books. Bauer, Yehuda Jews for Sale?